It’s the form of cardio that we see programmed the most often in CrossFit gyms, as well as the Open.
Yet way too often, I see athletes doing it wrong…
Sometimes, very wrong.
Yanking at the handle… not using their legs… pulling back too far to the point where they’re almost flat… we’ve all seen this guy before:
Whether you’re brand new to rowing for CrossFit, or have been doing it for awhile yet - this article is going to break down the movement, optimal form, damper setting, myths, and more.
Let’s start with addressing types of rowers. If you’re here because you’re thinking about purchasing a rower yourself, this article breaks down the variety of rowers that are on the market, and the pros and cons of each.
Keep in mind, CrossFit HQ has somewhat strict standards as to which brands of rowers are allowed to be used within CrossFit competitions. If that’s something that matters to you, it’s best to stick with the Concept2 Rower - which comes in a variety of models.
Sit down on the rower, and position the straps across the balls of your feet - tight enough so that feet don’t move too much, yet still allow you to slide in and out during a workout.
Foot plates should be adjusted so the widest part of the foot is even with the strap. This is important for the drive phase, and pushing through the midfoot. This set-up will also adjust the angle of your hip when you come into the catch
Listen up. You should not be setting the rower’s damper as high as possible, ever.
Read that again.
It’s true that a higher damper will increase the power of your pull - increasing calorie and distant rates - but this also equates to a much higher amount of work that is needed for each pull… which isn’t necessarily beneficial. With the increased work requirement that comes with each pull, you’ll end up fatiguing more quickly and not being able to overcome the higher resistance of the damper.
The rower’s damper should be adjusted based off the drag factor. On a C2, you can find the rower’s drag factor under ‘more options’ on the main menu - read more about that here.
Men should shoot for a drag factor of about 125, and women 110-115. Normally, this is around damper setting 6 for men, and 5 for women.
In order to understand the correct form that athletes should be using when rowing, let’s break down the row into phases:
Cool list - but what does it mean?
Rowing position should start in ‘the catch’ which is also where you’ll be finishing the movement. Sit on the rower with a strong, stiff back. You should be leaning forward, just slightly from neutral, with arms fully extended. Knees are bent, and shins should be vertical.
A note on heel position: The goal should be to keep your heels down. That being said, many CrossFit athletes have tight ankles… so my stance is that a small amount of heel rise is OK - as long as the drive phase initiates by pushing through the midfoot, NOT the toes.
The drive is initiated by pushing through the heel/midfoot to begin extending the knee. During this step, your torso should be maintaining the same angle as step 1 (slightly forward).
Again, the main focus here should be to drive through the midfoot, not the toes.
Once the knees are past 90 degrees (moving towards extension), it’s time to begin to open hips. All the while, your arms naturally will begin moving back towards your body, yet you shouldn’t be focusing on pulling - continue to focus on your legs.
Now it’s time to think about your arms. Once the hips are open and legs are fully extended, draw your arms back and bring the handle of the rower to your chest - the bottom of your sternum. Wrists should be in line with forearms, and elbows draw back.
Key: Note that elbows should draw back - NOT up and wide. Keep them close to the body.
This step is technically just the slight pause that occurs once the draw has been finished. Your body should be leaning back just slightly (think: 1 o’clock) with your legs straight, arms pulled in, wrists still in line with forearms, and the handle at the bottom of your chest.
You’re ready to complete the movement and move into the recovery step.
Recovery is the portion of the movement that takes us from the finish, back to the catch (the start of the row). This is done in exact reverse order from the drive. Push your arms away, and once extended, lean at the hip so that your body moves forward into the 11 o’clock position.
Bend the knees, and draw your body back into the Catch position (step 1).
Let’s take a look at some of the most common faults that we see when it comes to rowing for CrossFit.
Faults in the Catch (starting position)
Faults in the Drive
Faults in the Finish
Faults in the Recovery
On the monitor of your rower, you’ll notice a box that displays S/M. This stands for strokes for minute, and is a good way to track your pace.
Generally, I advise shooting for a stroke rate between 22- 28 per minute. If we maintain a high stroke rate, the resistance of the wheel will feel lighter, as you are not letting it slow down as much between reps.
For the more visual learners out here, check out the technique breakdown that I give after CrossFit 19.1 was released.
So after reading the step by step breakdown on rowing for CrossFit, and checking out the most common faults - where do you stand? Is your rowing form perfect and ready to go, or do you have some adjustments to make?
Remember, correct rowing form is important when it comes to efficiently completing workouts. Give these tips a try, or share this with a friend who has been struggling with rowing.
Is improving your rowing a goal that you're working on? Check out our article on goal setting, and how to set yourself up for success.
Resident Physical Therapist who answers all pain-related questions. Dr DePalma owns his clinic “The Movement Dr”, and is a WODprep Coach, L-1 Trainer, Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS), and USAW-L1 Trainer.
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